A phonograph is a device used for recording and playing back sound. It is made up of a turntable, tone arm, and stylus that work together to capture and reproduce sound. The sound is recorded onto a rotating disc or cylinder by the stylus cutting a groove into the surface. When played back, the stylus follows the groove, causing vibrations that are amplified and played through a speaker. This invention was first patented by Thomas Edison in 1877 and has undergone numerous advancements, including the transition from analog to digital formats. While not as popular as it once was, the phonograph remains a significant part of audio history.