SQL stands for Structured Query Language, a programming language used for managing data stored in relational databases. The main purpose of SQL is to retrieve and manipulate data from databases. It is both a declarative language, meaning that it specifies what data should be retrieved rather than how, and a data manipulation language, allowing for the creation, modification, and deletion of data in a database. SQL offers a wide range of commands and functions for managing databases, making it a powerful tool for data analysis and management. Its simplicity and versatility make it the preferred language for many companies and organizations.